Kars Oblast 1878-1917

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kars_Oblast"

Kars Oblast[1] (Russian: Карсская область, Karsskaya Oblast) was one of Transcaucasian governorates of Russian Empire between 1878 and 1917. Its capital was in the city of Kars, presently in the Republic of Turkey. The governorate bordered with the Ottoman Empire, Batum Oblast, Tiflis Governorate, Erivan Governorate, and from 1883 to 1903 with the Kutaisi Governorate. First governor of Kars Oblast was Victor A. Frankin with period of 1878-1881.

History

Kars Oblast was created in 1878 from some of the lands conquered by Russia from Ottoman Empire and transferred to Russia by the Treaty of San Stefano (1878). The lands of the Oblast had previously belonged to the Ottoman Kars Eyalet and Çıldır Eyaleti before 1845 and Erzurum Eyalet after 1845[2].

With the incorporation of the region into Russian Empire, a large portion (82,000 during 1878-81, according to Russian sources[3]) of the local Muslim (Turkish) population left for Turkey. Instead, Christian Armenians, and Christian Orthodox Georgians, Pontic Greeks, Russians (including Molokan and Doukhobor religious minorities) and even ethnic Germans migrated to or were resettled in the newly conquered lands from Russia's other Transcaucasian provinces or from areas that still fell within the Turkish side of the newly drawn border.

After the October Revolution of 1917 and the disintegration of Russian Empire, the lands of its Kars Oblast were controlled for a short while by Democratic Republic of Armenia and, in its northern part, by Democratic Republic of Georgia. However, Turkey soon reoccupied the area. Reincorporation of most of the lands of the former Kars Oblast into the Turkish state was officially confirmed by the Treaty of Kars (1921).

Administrative division

Since 1881, Kars Oblast consisted of four okrugs (districts):

Kars (Карсский округ)

Ardahan (Ардаганский округ)

Kağızman (Кагызманский округ)

Oltu (Ольтинский округ)

Two more okrugs, Zarushat (Заришат) and Shoragyal (Шорагял; also spelt Shuregel) existed in 1878-81.

Demographics

1892

As of 1892, the population of Kars Oblast was estimated as 200,868. The ethnic composition, and religious affiliation of ethnic groups, was reported as follows[4]:

Turks (this number also included a some Adjarians): 24% (Sunni Muslims)

Armenians: 21.5%

Kurds: 15% (Sunni Muslims and some Yazidi)

Muslim Karapapaks: 14% (Sunni and some Shi'a)

Alevi Karapapaks (reported as 'Turkmen'): 5%

Pontic Greeks: 13.5% (Orthodox Christians)

Russians: 7% (mostly "sectarians", i.e. Molokans, Doukhobors, etc.)

The religious composition of the population was reported as follows:

Orthodox Christians: 14%

"Sectarians" (Molokans, Doukhobors, etc.): 5%

Armenian Apostolic Church: 21%

Other Christian churches: 0.75%

Muslims: 53%, among which:

Sunni: 46%

Shi'a: 7%

Alevi (reported as "Ali Illahi"): 5%

Yazidi: 1.25%

1897

The Russian Empire Census of 1897 counted 290,654 residents in Kars Oblast, including 160,571 men and 130,083 women. This number may perhaps imply that the 200,868 estimate for 1892 given by Brockhaus is too low, or that a large-scale migration from other provinces of the empire took place in between. The following breakdown of the population by the mother tongue was reported[5]:

Turkic: 104,457, including:

Tatar: 2,347

Bashkir: 207

Turkish: 63,547

Karapapak: 29,879

Turkmen (Alavi Karapapak): 8,442

Armenian: 73,406

Kurdish: 42,968

Pontic Greeks: 32,593

East Slavic: 27,856, including:

Russian: 22,327

Ukrainian: 5,279

Belarusian: 250

Polish: 3243

Jewish (Yiddish etc.): 1,138

Lithuanian: 892

Chaldean Neo-Aramaic ('Assyrian'): 585

Persian: 568

Georgian: 543

Ossetian: 520

Estonian: 455

Lezgin: 448

German: 430

The 30,000 excess population of male over females was mainly attributed to the "European" ethnic groups. Viz., among the 27,856 speakers of Russian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian, 19,910 men and 7,946 women were recorded. The Polish, and Lithuanian speakers were almost exclusively (99%) male as well; Germans and Jews, 80 to 90% males. This preponderance of males in the "European" ethnic groups (reported, usually to a lesser extent, in neighboring governorates as well) may indicate presence of a large numbers of soldiers or exiled persons in the region.

Ethnic groups in Kars Oblast according to 1897 Russian census[6]

Okrug (district)

TOTAL

Ardahan

Kaghzvan

Kars

Olti

Armenians

25,30%

2,90%

36,50%

34,80%

9,90%

Turks

21,90%

42,60%

8,70%

7,90%

62,60%

Kurds

14,80%

19,10%

29,90%

6,80%

11,10%

Greeks

11,20%

11,90%

12,20%

11,00%

8,60%

Karapapak

10,30%

12,00%

0,00%

16,40%

0,00%

Russians

7,70%

3,00%

4,40%

12,60%

2,80%

Turkmens

2,90%

6,60%

1,10%

1,80%

3,20%

Ukrainians

1,80%

0,00%

2,40%

2,50%

0,00%

Poles

1,10%

0,00%

1,50%

1,60%

0,00%

Tatars (Azerbaijani)

0,00%

0,00%

1,50%

1,10%

0,00%



[1] Oblast είναι ένα είδος διοικητικής διαίρεσης σε σλαβικές χώρες, συμπεριλαμβανομένων και ορισμένων χωρών της πρώην Σοβιετικής Ένωσης . Η λέξη «oblast» είναι ένα loanword στα Αγγλικά, αλλά είναι παρ 'όλα αυτά συχνά μεταφράζεται ως " περιοχή "," ζώνη "," επαρχία ", ή" περιφέρεια ". Η τελευταία μετάφραση μπορεί να οδηγήσει σε σύγχυση, επειδή η υποδιαίρεση του «oblast» ονομάζεται " Raion "που μεταφράζεται ως« περιοχή» ή« περιοχή », ανάλογα με το πλαίσιο.




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